Reading List

The research and education articles on this list apply to the subjects discussed on the website and many of the articles are cited as references.

Anchorage Alaska Snowstorms

The St. Patricks Day Snowstorm, 2002, Anchorage, Alaska - Joel Curtis, John Papineau, Carven Scott, Weather Forecast Office, Anchorage, Alaska; Kent Johnson, Meteorological Service of Canada

Climate Patterns

Smith, S. R., and J. J. O'Brien, 2001: Regional Snowfall Distributions Associated with ENSO: Implications for Seasonal Forecasting. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 82, 1179-1191.

Jillien, M. P., S. R. Smith, and J. J. O'Brien, 2003: Impacts of ENSO on Snowfall Frequencies in the United States. Wea. Forecasting, 18, 965-980.

What is the Polar Vortex and How Does It Influence Weather? - Darryn W. Waugh, Adam H. Sobel, and Lorenzo M. Polvani

Cold Air Damming Along the Appalachian Mountains

Cold Air Damming discussion from "" website - Article written by Robert Meyer; website created by Jeff Haby

The Challenge of Forecasting Winter Precipitation Type in the Appalachian Region - Steve Keighton, Science and Operations Officer, National Weather Service, Blacksburg, VA

Cold Air Damming in the Appalachian Mountains - Alec S. Bogdanoff, Department of Meteorology, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida

A Comprehensive Climatology of Appalachian Cold Air Damming - Christopher M. Bailey and Gary M. Lackmann, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC; Gail Hartfield and Kermit Keeter, National Weather Service, Raleigh, NC

Mountain Waves

Brady, R. H. and J. S. Waldstreicher, 2001: Observations of Mountain Wave-Induced Precipitation Shadows over Northeast Pennsylvania, Wea. Forecasting, 16, 281-300.

Smith, R. B., 1979: The influence of mountains on the atmosphere. B. Saltzman, Ed., Adv. Geophys., 21, 87-230. [ Specifically note pages 88 and 89. ]

Kirkwood, P. D., D. M. Gaffin, and S. S. Parker, 2002: An Unexpectedly Heavy and Complex Snowfall Event across the Southern Appalachian Region. Wea. Forecasting, 18, 224-235.

Northwest Upslope Flow Snowfall in the Appalachian Mountains

An Overview of Northwest Flow Snow in Western North Carolina - National Weather Service, Greenville-Spartanburg, SC

Northwest Flow Snow in the Southern Appalachians - National Weather Service, Greenville-Spartanburg, SC

Snow Accumulations from Northwest Upslope Flow - Steve Keighton, Science and Operations Officer, Blacksburg, VA

The Influence of the Great Lakes on Northwest Snowfall in the Southern Appalachians - Robbie* Munroe and Doug K. Miller, University of North Carolina at Asheville, Asheville, NC; B. Holloway and Lackmann, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC

Perry, B. and C. E. Konrad, 2004: Northwest Flow Snowfall in the Southern Appalachians: Spatial and Synoptic Patterns. Preprints, 61st. Eastern Snow Conference, Portland ME, 179-189.

Precipitation Type

On the Characteristics of and Processes Producing Winter Precipitation Types Near 0oC - Ronald E. Stewart, Julie M. Theriault, and William Henson

Puget Sound Convergence Zone

William, M. W., R. L. Doherty, and B. R. Colman, 1993: A Methodology for Predicting the Puget Sound Convergence Zone and Its Associated Weather, Wea Forecasting, 8, 214-222.

Garth, K. F., C. F. Mass, G. M. Lackmann, and M. W. Patnoe, 1993: Snowstorms over the Puget Sound Lowlands, Wea. Forecasting, 8, 481-504.

Clifford M., 1981: Topographically Forced Convergence in Western Washington State, Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 1335-1347.

Puget Sound Overrrunning

Garth, K. F., C. F. Mass, G. M. Lackmann, and M. W. Patnoe, 1993: Snowstorms over the Puget Sound Lowlands, Wea. Forecasting, 8, 481-504.

Heavy Snow and Convective Snow

Market, P. S., C. E. Halcomb, and R. L. Ebert, 2002: A Climatology of Thundersnow Events over the Contiguous United States. Wea. Forecasting, 17, 1290�1295.

Market, P. S., A. M. Oravetz, D. Gaede, E. Bookbinder, B. Pettegrew, and R. Thomas, 2004: Proximity sounding composites of Midwestern thundersnow events. 20th Conference on Weather Analysis and Forecasting, Seattle, WA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., p4.2.

Morales,R. F., 2008: The Historic Christmas 2004 South Texas Snow Event: Diagnosis of the Heavy Snow Band. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 2, 135-152.

Snowfall Forecasting Techniques

Morrison, A. L., 1989: A Method to Determine the Width of a Snow Band Associated with Winter Storms by Using Infrared Satellite Date. Postprints, 2nd Nat. Winter Weather Workshop, Raleigh, NC, 65-73.

Snow Impacts On Society

Call, D. A., 2005: Rethinking snowstorms as snow events: A regional case study from Upstate New York. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83, 37-51.

Kocin, P. J., and L. W. Uccellini, 2004b: A snowfall impact scale derived from Northeast storm snowfall distributions. Bull. Amer. meteor. Soc., 85, 177-194.

Snow-to-liquid Ratio

Baxter, M. A., C. E. Graves, and J. T. Moore, Oct. 2005: A Climatology of Snow-to-liquid Ratio for the Contiguous United States, Wea. Forecasting, 20, 729-744.

Doesken, N. J., A. Judson, 1997: The Snow Booklet: A Guide to the Sciences, Climatology, and Measurement of Snow in the United States. 2d ed. Colorado State University Department of Atmospheric Science, 86 pp.

Goodison, B. E., 1978: Accuracy of Canadian snow gauge measurements, J. Appl. Meteorol., 27, 1542-1548.