This website is mainly dedicated to presenting studies of winter climate and summaries of specific winter storms for the Duluth, MN area. Profiles of other locations in the U.S. that the author finds particularly interesting are also included and more will likely be added in the future.

SNINCR is a remark in aviation observations and means "snow increasing rapidly". For example, "SNINCR 1/8" indicates 1 inch of snow accumulated in the past hour with 8 inches total on the ground.

Watches, Warnings, Advisories (NWS)

Latest Favorite Storms Summary

Snowstorm Enahnced by Standing Atmospheric Wave - Duluth, MN
January 23 to 26, 2010
(Image from National Weather Service Radar Duluth, MN)


Duluth Local Influences
How Much Accumulation?
Snow and Convection
Snow Impacts on Society
Winter Profiles
Winter Weather Processes

Climate Patterns [*NEEDS significant RE-WRITE and some simplification]
Microclimates and Mesoclimates

Storm Summaries
Best Snowstorms
Informal Case Studies
Image Gallery

Research Articles used on This Website


The unnamed hurricane which occurred at the end of October to start of November 1991, made famous in the movie "The Perfect Storm", is shown in this NOAA satellite image. But another storm is also raging. Look at the satellite image again and notice on the upper left edge of the image the big swirl of clouds over Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Iowa. That storm became known as the Halloween Blizzard of 1991. From October 31st to November 3rd the storm buried eastern Minnesota and adjacent sections of western Wisconsin with 24+ inches of snow generally along interstate 35 from Minneapolis to Duluth and the arrowhead of Minnesota. Duluth received 36.9 inches, the largest snowstorm on record for the city.