Research Articles Used on this Website

Anchorage Alaska Snowstorms

The St. Patricks Day Snowstorm, 2002, Anchorage, Alaska - Joel Curtis, John Papineau, Carven Scott, Weather Forecast Office, Anchorage, Alaska; Kent Johnson, Meteorological Service of Canada

Climate Patterns

Smith, S. R., and J. J. O'Brien, 2001: Regional Snowfall Distributions Associated with ENSO: Implications for Seasonal Forecasting. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 82, 1179-1191.

Jillien, M. P., S. R. Smith, and J. J. O'Brien, 2003: Impacts of ENSO on Snowfall Frequencies in the United States. Wea. Forecasting, 18, 965-980.

Cold Air Damming Along the Appalachian Mountains

Cold Air Damming discussion from "" website - Article written by Robert Meyer, website created by Jeff Haby (view)

The Challenge of Forecasting Winter Precipitation Type in the Appalachian Region - Steve Keighton, Science and Operations Officer, National Weather Service, Blacksburg, VA

Cold Air Damming in the Appalachian Mountains - Alec S. Bogdanoff

A Comprehensive Climatology of Appalachian Cold Air Damming - Christopher M. Bailey and Gary M. Lackmann, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC; Gail Hartfield and Kermit Keeter, National Weather Service, Raleigh, NC

Mountain Waves

Brady, R. H. and J. S. Waldstreicher, 2001: Observations of Mountain Wave-Induced Precipitation Shadows over Northeast Pennsylvania, Wea. Forecasting, 16, 281-300.

Smith, R. B., 1979: The influence of mountains on the atmosphere. B. Saltzman, Ed., Adv. Geophys., 21, 87-230. [ Specifically note pages 88 and 89. ]

Kirkwood, P. D., D. M. Gaffin, and S. S. Parker, 2002: An Unexpectedly Heavy and Complex Snowfall Event across the Southern Appalachian Region. Wea. Forecasting, 18, 224-235.

Northwest Upslope Flow Snowfall in the Appalachian Mountains

An Overview of Northwest Flow Snow in Western North Carolina - National Weather Service, Greenville-Spartanburg, SC

Northwest Flow Snow in the Southern Appalachians - National Weather Service, Greenville-Spartanburg, SC

Snow Accumulations from Northwest Upslope Flow - Steve Keighton, Science and Operations Officer, Blacksburg, VA

The Influence of the Great Lakes on Northwest Snowfall in the Southern Appalachians - Robbie* Munroe and Doug K. Miller, University of North Carolina at Asheville, Asheville, NC; B. Holloway and Lackmann, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC

Perry, B. and C. E. Konrad, 2004: Northwest Flow Snowfall in the Southern Appalachians: Spatial and Synoptic Patterns. Preprints, 61st. Eastern Snow Conference, Portland ME, 179-189.

Puget Sound Convergence Zone

William, M. W., R. L. Doherty, and B. R. Colman, 1993: A Methodology for Predicting the Puget Sound Convergence Zone and Its Associated Weather, Wea Forecasting, 8, 214-222.

Garth, K. F., C. F. Mass, G. M. Lackmann, and M. W. Patnoe, 1993: Snowstorms over the Puget Sound Lowlands, Wea. Forecasting, 8, 481-504.

Clifford M., 1981: Topographically Forced Convergence in Western Washington State, Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 1335-1347.

Puget Sound Overrrunning

Garth, K. F., C. F. Mass, G. M. Lackmann, and M. W. Patnoe, 1993: Snowstorms over the Puget Sound Lowlands, Wea. Forecasting, 8, 481-504.

Snow and Convection

Market, P. S., C. E. Halcomb, and R. L. Ebert, 2002: A Climatology of Thundersnow Events over the Contiguous United States. Wea. Forecasting, 17, 12901295.

Market, P. S., A. M. Oravetz, D. Gaede, E. Bookbinder, B. Pettegrew, and R. Thomas, 2004: Proximity sounding composites of Midwestern thundersnow events. 20th Conference on Weather Analysis and Forecasting, Seattle, WA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., p4.2.

Morales,R. F., 2008: The Historic Christmas 2004 South Texas Snow Event: Diagnosis of the Heavy Snow Band. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 2, 135-152.

Snowfall Forecasting Techniques

Morrison, A. L., 1989: A Method to Determine the Width of a Snow Band Associated with Winter Storms by Using Infrared Satellite Date. Postprints, 2nd Nat. Winter Weather Workshop, Raleigh, NC, 65-73.

Snow Impacts On Society

Call, D. A., 2005: Rethinking snowstorms as snow events: A regional case study from Upstate New York. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83, 37-51.

Kocin, P. J., and L. W. Uccellini, 2004b: A snowfall impact scale derived from Northeast storm snowfall distributions. Bull. Amer. meteor. Soc., 85, 177-194.

Snow-to-liquid Ratio

Baxter, M. A., C. E. Graves, and J. T. Moore, Oct. 2005: A Climatology of Snow-to-liquid Ratio for the Contiguous United States, Wea. Forecasting, 20, 729-744.

Doesken, N. J., A. Judson, 1997: The Snow Booklet: A Guide to the Sciences, Climatology, and Measurement of Snow in the United States. 2d ed. Colorado State University Department of Atmospheric Science, 86 pp.

Goodison, B. E., 1978: Accuracy of Canadian snow gauge measurements, J. Appl. Meteorol., 27, 1542-1548.