INTRODUCTION

This website is dedicated to snow and related topics. Discussions are biased toward but not limited to winter weather affecting Duluth, MN (alias Orographic City). The creator of this website lives in Duluth which might have something to do with the bias.

SNINCR, a contraction for "Snow Increasing Rapidly", is a surface observation remark reported at some stations when snow in the past hour has accumulated 1 inch or more in the last hour. For example, SNINCR 1/8 means that 1 inch accumulated in the past hour with a total of 8 inches on the ground. Snow amounts are rounded off to the nearest inch.


SEE WHAT IS HAPPENING NOW

U.S. Radar Loop (NWS) Satellite (NESDIS) Surface Maps (HPC) Heavy Snow Forecast (HPC)
Click on images or labels to get data


WINTER WEATHER OVERVIEW

Winter Weather Forecasts (HPC)
Watches, Warnings, Advisories (NWS)
Mesocale Discussions (SPC)


TOPICS

Discussions
Duluth Local Influences
How Much Accumulation?
Snow and Convection
Snow Impacts on Society
Winter Profiles
Winter Weather Processes

Climate
Climate Change and Snow
Climate Change Websites
Climate Patterns
Microclimates and Mesoclimates
Snowfall Climatology

Storm Summaries
My Favorite Snowstorms
Informal Case Studies
Image Gallery

Education
Mathematics in Meteorology

References
Research Articles used on This Website
My Weather Definitions


TOPIC DESCRIPTIONS

Discussions

Duluth Local Influences
Presents an example of how local geographic features can have a dramatic affect on snowfall and climate in general. Much of Duluth, Minnesota is built along a ridge that runs along the north shore of Lake Superior and as a result experiences wide variations in snowfall.

How Much Accumulation?
Discusses factors influencing how much snow really accumulates on the ground. You will see that a forecasterís task in determining how much snow will accumulate in terms of being measured is far more complex than equating 10 inches of snow to 1 inch of liquid.

Snow and Convection
A brief discussion of the characteristics and causes of thundersnow especially from the view of this author's own experiences. Short discussions from other sources are included at the bottom, plus a reference to the Research on Convective Snows website dedicated to the study of convective snows.

Snow Impacts on Society
Variations in snowfall amount and snowfall intensity affect cities relative to their experience and resources available to deal with it. For example, a snowstorm of 6 inches will disrupt Birmingham, Alabama more than Duluth, Minnesota.

Winter Profiles
Winter weather and climate for selected cities of interest. Note that even southern U.S. winters can challenge weather forecasters.

Winter Weather Processes
A selection of atmospheric processes that produce or enhance snowfall formation.

Climate

Climate Change and Snow
Some of my personal comments.

Climate Change Websites
Just can't get enough of the climate change debate? Check out these websites and learn something. The experts DO NOT all agree.

Climate Patterns
How El Niño, La Niño, and other Climate Oscillations may affect snowfall.

Microclimates and Mesoclimates
Definition and examples of small scale climate influences.

Snowfall Climatology
When is the average snowfall not the amount of snowfall to expect?

Storm Summaries

My Favorite Snowstorms
A Description of my favorite snowstorms from 1993 to present. Quite a few produced thunder.

Informal Case Studies
Brief summaries of some interesting winter weather cases.

Image Gallery
Images of interesting or unusual weather events.

Education

Mathematics in Meteorology
How math is used in meteorology. Hint: Its ALL about the math!

References

Research Articles used on This Website
List of reference articles used on this website. Some of the entries include web links to the articles.

My Weather Definitions
Personal definitions of terms related to weather.


THE "OTHER" PERFECT STORM

The unnamed hurricane which occurred at the end of October to start of November 1991, made famous in the movie "The Perfect Storm", is shown in this NOAA satellite image. But another storm is also raging. Look at the satellite image again and notice on the upper left edge of the image the big swirl of clouds over Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Iowa. That storm became known as the Halloween Blizzard of 1991. From October 31st to November 3rd the storm buried eastern Minnesota and adjacent sections of western Wisconsin with 24+ inches of snow generally along interstate 35 from Minneapolis to Duluth and the arrowhead of Minnesota. Duluth received 36.9 inches, the largest snowstorm on record for the city.